There are not many though. Rachel permalink August 20, Hi there — thank you for the informative article!
Trauma is the experience of being psychologically overwhelmed. When traumatized, a person is rendered impotent. At that moment, they are incapable of coping either intellectually or emotionally.
Research has shown that trauma leaves a person changed both psychologically and physiologically Van der Kolk and Van der Hart, Trauma survivors frequently experience depression, anxiety, difficulty responding to new situations, rigid thinking, defensiveness, paranoia, aggressiveness, over-reactivity to mild stress, and increased health problems Van der Kolk and Van der Hart,; Van der Kolk,; Van der Kolk, Trauma can come from a single catastrophic event, such as violence in the workplace, or a series of less dramatic stressors which, through their cumulative effect, create debilitating psychological and physical changes.
Although each individual incident is not incapacitating, when we add them together in an unrelenting stream; they create debilitating psychological and physical effects. Thus, trauma can come from a single, cataclysmic event or the cumulative effect of multiple stressors.
Not all stressful events are traumatic and not all people respond to the same stressful event the same way.
Both individual and situational factors influence how a stressor affects a person. The following factors play a significant role in whether a person is traumatized. Control — The less control a person feels they have over a stressful situation, the more traumatic it will be Seligman,; Sauter et al, This has been demonstrated in the workplace, where the degree of control a person has over their job has been shown to affect their stress level and prevalence of occupational health problems Sauter et al,; Gehlman, The less legitimate control a person has, the more likely they are to attempt inappropriate control through violence, territoriality, resistance to change, and other counterproductive behaviors.
Predictability and Certainty — Research on both laboratory animals and humans has shown that the more uncertain and unpredictable a stressful situation, the more traumatic it will be Seligman, Conversely, when people have enough information about a challenging situation to predict what is going to happen next, they are less likely to feel threatened and overwhelmed.
A recent study on organizational change by Keita and Jones identified uncertainty and unpredictability as key factors in whether organizational change will result in employee mental and physical health problems. Individual Resiliency or Emotional Toughness — Whether an event is traumatizing or not also depends on the individual.
Not everyone responds identically to the same stressor. Research shows that emotionally resilient people not only have a different attitudinal response to stress, but a different biochemical response as well. The biochemical response of people with low resiliency not only makes them less likely to respond successfully to the stressor, but also makes them susceptible to illness later.
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Although emotional resilience probably has an innate component, research has shown that emotional resiliency can be developed by programs which utilize the sequencing of activities involving moderate physical and emotional stress followed by recuperation Loehr, Stressful situations bring out their best.
Those with low self-efficacy, on the other hand perceive themselves as incapable of responding effectively. Their ineffective responses, generated by their attitude, lead to unsuccessful outcomes, which then reinforce their sense of low self-efficacy. This creates a vicious downward spiral; their deteriorating sense of self-efficacy makes them less capable of dealing with subsequent stressors, further reinforcing their sense of low self-efficacy.
Because they bring a positive expectation to challenges, stressors bring out their best. Not only does this increase their chances of generating an effective response, it also decreases their chances of being overwhelmed by stressors, thus reinforcing their sense of self-efficacy.
A Support System — Not surprisingly, people with a good emotional support system can withstand stressful situations more easily than those who try to tough it out alone Sarason et al, The Context — If a potentially traumatic event takes place in a context where people can talk about it without having to pretend to be tough or unaffected; they can work through, and let go of, the painful emotions triggered by the event.
Trauma, The Mind, and The Brain Understanding the problems trauma poses in the workplace is easier when one understands how trauma affects a person psychologically and neurologically.
To keep this from becoming a technical treatise, we will only briefly discuss this topic. Our Three Brains In his landmark research on the brain and behavior, Paul MacLeancoined the term Triune Brain to reflect how our brain acts like it is composed of three separate sub-brains.Although the emotional effects of trauma have been well publicized, we have just scratched the surface in our understanding of the damage it causes.
Management Fads - Things You Should Know. Organizations love the newest buzz words and fads, particularly management fads, but there are some real costs to bandwagon jumping, even when the ideas involved in the newly adopted fad are sound.
Everyone will get a bonus of $ if the project meets its quality goals, $ if it meets its budget goals, and $ if it comes in on time. C. The five team members who put in the most hours will get a trip to Disneyland. Time to Get Tough: Make America Great Again by Donald J.
Trump A New York Times bestseller! For the first time in his own words, President-elect Donald J. /5(26). Deming’s 14 Points for Total Quality Management (TQM) When this happens, the supplier can meet the business’s needs because it has the resources to do so.
Nobody is trying to drive prices down while still expecting the best for less. Deming makes a tough call on managers. As a leader, your job is to help other people do their jobs. Aug 07, · I think life has been too good in the 90's for most corporations, so TQM (being front-end loaded) goes into hibernation until the going gets tough again and managers start scrambling for ways to be competetive.