To Kill a Mockingbird: Courage words, approx.
Types[ edit ] An overview of the diversity in nest placement and construction. Not every bird species builds or uses a nest.
Some auksfor instance—including common murrethick-billed murre and razorbill —lay their eggs directly onto the narrow rocky ledges they use as breeding sites.
This is critical for the survival of the developing eggs, as there are no nests to keep them from rolling off the side of the cliff. Presumably because of the vulnerability of their unprotected eggs, parent birds of these auk species rarely leave them unattended.
They are thus able to move about while incubating, though in practice only the emperor penguin regularly does so. Emperor penguins breed during the harshest months of the Antarctic winter, and their mobility allows them to form huge huddled masses which help them to withstand the extremely high winds and low temperatures of the season.
Without the ability to share body heat temperatures in the centre of tight groups can be as much as 10C above the ambient air temperaturethe penguins would expend far more energy trying to stay warm, and breeding attempts would probably fail.
The simplest nest construction is the scrape, which is merely a shallow depression in soil or vegetation. Eggs and young in scrape nests, and the adults that brood them, are more exposed to predators and the elements than those in more sheltered nests; they are on the ground and typically in the open, with little to hide them.
The eggs of most ground-nesting birds including those that use scrape nests are cryptically coloured to help camouflage them when the adult is not covering them; the actual colour generally corresponds to the substrate on which they are laid.
Most ground-nesting species have well-developed distraction displayswhich are used to draw or drive potential predators from the area around the nest.
Both sexes contribute to the creation of a bare, shallow depression in soil or gravel. In cool climates such as in the high Arctic or at high elevationsthe depth of a scrape nest can be critical to both the survival of developing eggs and the fitness of the parent bird incubating them.
The scrape must be deep enough that eggs are protected from the convective cooling caused by cold winds, but shallow enough that they and the parent bird are not too exposed to the cooling influences of ground temperatures, particularly where the permafrost layer rises to mere centimeters below the nest.
In warm climates, such as deserts and salt flatsheat rather than cold can kill the developing embryos. In such places, scrapes are shallower and tend to be lined with non-vegetative material including shells, feathers, sticks and soil which allows convective cooling to occur as air moves over the eggs.
Some species, such as the lesser nighthawk and the red-tailed tropicbirdhelp reduce the nest's temperature by placing it in partial or full shade. Some shorebirds also soak their breast feathers with water and then sit on the eggs, providing moisture to enable evaporative cooling.
Beach-nesting terns, for instance, fashion their nests by rocking their bodies on the sand in the place they have chosen to site their nest,  while skimmers build their scrapes with their feet, kicking sand backwards while resting on their bellies and turning slowly in circles.
Burying eggs as a form of incubation reaches its zenith with the Australasian megapodes. Several megapode species construct enormous mound nests made of soil, branches, sticks, twigs and leaves, and lay their eggs within the rotting mass. The heat generated by these mounds, which are in effect giant compost heapswarms and incubates the eggs.To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel by Harper Lee published in It was immediately successful, winning the Pulitzer Prize, and has become a classic of modern American alphabetnyc.com plot and characters are loosely based on Lee's observations of her family, her neighbors and an event that occurred near her hometown of Monroeville, Alabama, in , when she was 10 years old.
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First of all, we learn what happened to Jem. To Kill a Mockingbird is an exploration of human morality, and presents a constant conversation regarding the inherent goodness or evilness of people.
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Atticus Finch of Harper Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird In the novel "To Kill A Mockingbird", by Harper Lee, Atticus Finch is a most compelling character. Atticus grew up on a .