The natural law concept existed long before Locke as a way of expressing the idea that there were certain moral truths that applied to all people, regardless of the particular place where they lived or the agreements they had made. The most important early contrast was between laws that were by nature, and thus generally applicable, and those that were conventional and operated only in those places where the particular convention had been established. This distinction is sometimes formulated as the difference between natural law and positive law. Natural law is also distinct from divine law in that the latter, in the Christian tradition, normally referred to those laws that God had directly revealed through prophets and other inspired writers.
His mother was Agnes Keene. Both parents were Puritans.
Locke was born on 29 Augustin a small thatched cottage by the church in WringtonSomerset, about 12 miles from Bristol.
He was baptised the same day. Soon after Locke's birth, the family moved to the market town of Pensfordabout seven miles south of Bristol, where Locke grew up in a rural Tudor house in Belluton. InLocke was sent to the prestigious Westminster School in London under the sponsorship of Alexander Pophama member of Parliament and his father's former commander.
After completing studies there, he was admitted to Christ ChurchOxfordin the autumn of at the age of twenty. The dean of the college at the time was John Owenvice-chancellor of the university.
Although a capable student, Locke was irritated by the undergraduate curriculum of the time. Through his friend Richard Lowerwhom he knew from the Westminster School, Locke was introduced to medicine and the experimental philosophy being pursued at other universities and in the Royal Societyof which he eventually became a member.
Locke was awarded a bachelor's degree in February and a master's degree in June Cooper was impressed with Locke and persuaded him to become part of his retinue. Locke had been looking for a career and in moved into Shaftesbury's home at Exeter House in London, to serve as Lord Ashley's personal physician.
In London, Locke resumed his medical studies under the tutelage of Thomas Sydenham. Locke's medical knowledge was put to the test when Shaftesbury's liver infection became life-threatening.
Locke coordinated the advice of several physicians and was probably instrumental in persuading Shaftesbury to undergo surgery then life-threatening itself to remove the cyst.
Shaftesbury survived and prospered, crediting Locke with saving his life. During this time, Locke served as Secretary of the Board of Trade and Plantations and Secretary to the Lords Proprietor of Carolina, which helped to shape his ideas on international trade and economics.
Shaftesbury, as a founder of the Whig movement, exerted great influence on Locke's political ideas. Locke became involved in politics when Shaftesbury became Lord Chancellor in Following Shaftesbury's fall from favour inLocke spent some time travelling across France as tutor and medical attendant to Caleb Banks.
Around this time, most likely at Shaftesbury's prompting, Locke composed the bulk of the Two Treatises of Government. While it was once thought that Locke wrote the Treatises to defend the Glorious Revolution ofrecent scholarship has shown that the work was composed well before this date.
Although Locke was associated with the influential Whigs, his ideas about natural rights and government are today considered quite revolutionary for that period in English history.
Locke fled to the Netherlands inunder strong suspicion of involvement in the Rye House Plotalthough there is little evidence to suggest that he was directly involved in the scheme.
The philosopher and novelist Rebecca Newberger Goldstein argues that during his five years in Holland, Locke chose his friends "from among the same freethinking members of dissenting Protestant groups as Spinoza's small group of loyal confidants.
Locke did not return home until after the Glorious Revolution. Locke accompanied Mary II back to England in Locke's close friend Lady Masham invited him to join her at the Mashams' country house in Essex. Although his time there was marked by variable health from asthma attacks, he nevertheless became an intellectual hero of the Whigs.
During this period he discussed matters with such figures as John Dryden and Isaac Newton. He died on 28 Octoberand is buried in the churchyard of the village of High Laver east of Harlow in Essex, where he had lived in the household of Sir Francis Masham since Locke never married nor had children.
He did not quite see the Act of Union ofthough the thrones of England and Scotland were held in personal union throughout his lifetime. Constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy were in their infancy during Locke's time. Ideas In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, Locke's Two Treatises were rarely cited.
Historian Julian Hoppit said of the book, "except among some Whigs, even as a contribution to the intense debate of the s it made little impression and was generally ignored until though in Oxford in it was reported to have made 'a great noise' ".
However, with the rise of American resistance to British taxation, the Second Treatise gained a new readership; it was frequently cited in the debates in both America and Britain.
The first American printing occurred in in Boston. Michael Zuckert has argued that Locke launched liberalism by tempering Hobbesian absolutism and clearly separating the realms of Church and State.Young Locke was there the same time as the poet and future apologist for Charles II, John Dryden () and was at school at the time of Charles I’s execution on the scaffolding erected in front of the nearby Banqueting House (Jan.
"John Locke (–)", The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, Library of Economics and Liberty (2nd ed.), Liberty Fund, Kraynak, Robert P. (March ). "John . May 05, · By Peter Smith. The life and times of John Locke, the English philosopher (part 1).
John Locke’s Political Philosophy, entry by Alexander Moseley, in the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy John Locke Bibliography, maintained by John Attig (Pennsylvania State University). Images of Locke, at the National Portrait Gallery, Great Britain.
John Locke was an English philosopher and political theorist during the s. He was also the founder of British empiricism.
He is known for his great contribution to the Enlightenment period, in which he gave people the idea of natural rights and a government that protects those rights.
Locke's writings helped found modern Western philosophy. Early Life. Influential philosopher and physician John Locke, whose writings had a significant impact on Western philosophy, was born on August 29, , in Wrington, a village in the English county of alphabetnyc.com: Aug 29,