He was the second of three children, and was first named Michael, after his father. Both changed their names to Martin when the boy was still young.
The Reformation Jean Calvin To contemporaries, the reordering of religion and the sundering of the social unity that it had once provided to European culture was the most significant development of the sixteenth century.
It is impossible to understand the time without taking a look at this. Religion was not a matter of personal preference or opinion, it was the very basis of society. The Pre-Reform The rediscovery of the learning of the ancient world, the printing press, and all the other forces that came together to create the Renaissance also affected the Church.
At the end of the fifteenth century and the beginning of the sixteenth, Christian humanists sought to apply the new style of scholarship to the study of scriptures in their original languages and to return to the first principles of their religion.
In the interests of spreading religious understanding, they began to translate the Bible into the vernacular languages. The Renaissance belief in the "perfectability of man" made people less content with things as they were, and more interested in improving them in the here and now.
No one could argue that the church was not corrupt: The Christian humanists criticized these all-too-human failings, while striving for a purer church. The early years of the sixteenth century were graced by some great Christian humanist intellects: There was no particular intention of breaking from the church at this time, merely a passion for improving it.
There was no concept of the separation of church and state in France. The Pope gave the kings of France the title of "Most Christian King," and at his consecration itself a holy rite the King takes an oath to extirpate heresy in his realm. In spite of this close relationship, or perhaps because of it, the Gallican church in France has also traditionally enjoyed more independence from the central church hierarchy.
The King's rights to govern the church were unprecendented. Although this gave the Pope many rights, it gave the king more. The king of France had enormous powers to dispose of the Church's wealth and he could and did use the offices of bishops, abbots, etc. This also meant that lords of the church were usually quite worldly people, often quite unfit for their offices if spirituality or theological learning is considered a requirement.
The Pope's veto was hardly ever exercised. There was no restraint against a single individual holding many simultaneous titles, and there were plenty of bishops who lived well on their revenues and never set foot in their sees.
The weaving together of obligation, reward, and responsibility between church and state made for a unique Gallican fusion of church and state, with the University of Paris the Sorbonne acting as the scholastic think-tank arm of the church-state complex.
Luther Ina dispute about who was entitled to a cut of the revenues generated by itinerant papal indulgence sellers provoked the controversy that led the Augustinian monk, Martin Luther, to nail his 95 theses to the church door at Wittenburg.
The upshot of Luther's theses was that Christians are saved by faith, and faith alone, and that no amount of works including the purchase of indulgences made any difference at all.
A drastic enough view, but not one that was immediately perceived as having the ultimate consequences that it eventually did. The Pope, Leo X, was a fairly easy going fellow, not inclined to vigorously prosecute this first appearance of heresy.
There were plenty of heterodox views in the air at the time, and he thought it could be worked out diplomatically.
As it turns out, it could not. Luther was not immediately burnt for a heretic; he was allowed to present his case in court and had a powerful effect on the populace. He also had a powerful patron and protector in the Elector of Saxony, who shielded him from the ecclesiastical authorities.
In addition, the media explosion brought on by the printing press spread his message much further than it otherwise might have gone, and made him the focus for all sorts of religious, spiritual, political, and economic discontent.
The right to read and interpret scripture lead to the throwing off of the chains of papal and ecclesiastical authority; and taking this to mean political and economic freedom as well, there were widespread revolts among the German peasantry.Martin Luther King Jr.
(January 15, – April 4, ) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from until his death in Born in Atlanta, King is best known for advancing civil rights through nonviolence and civil disobedience, tactics his Christian beliefs and the nonviolent activism of.
Martin Luther King, Jr.: Nonviolent Strategies and Tactics for Social Change [John J. Ansbro] on alphabetnyc.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Examines his contribution as a philosopher and theologian to issues of racial and social justice and his drive to eradicate oppression through the doctrine of .
Horoscope and natal chart of Martin Luther King, born on /01/ you will find in this page an excerpt of the astrological portrait and the interpration of the planetary dominants.
Little-known or remarkable facts about Martin Luther's Early Years. After , Luther spent the rest of his life as an outlaw.
Luther once supervised 10 monasteries. As a . Civil Rights Leaders in Selma Minister, philosopher, and social activist Martin Luther King Jr.
() was America's most significant civil rights leader of the s and s. He achieved his most renown and greatest successes in advancing the cause of civil rights while leading a series of highly publicized campaigns in Alabama between and Leader of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century in Germany; born at Eisleben, 10 November, ; died at Eisleben, 18 February, His father, Hans, was a miner, a rugged, stern, irascible character.
In the opinion of many of his biographers, it was an expression of uncontrolled.