Alice ThomasGlenda Thorne Parents and teachers can do a lot to encourage higher order thinking.
S-1 Thinking Independently Principle: Critical thinking is independent thinking, thinking for oneself. Many of our beliefs are acquired at an early age, when we have a strong tendency to form beliefs for irrational reasons because we want to believe, because we are praised or rewarded for believing.
Critical thinkers use critical skills and insights to reveal and reject beliefs that are irrational. In forming new beliefs, critical thinkers do not passively accept the beliefs of others; rather, they try to figure things out for themselves, reject unjustified authorities, and recognize the contributions of genuine authorities.
They thoughtfully form principles of thought and action; they do not mindlessly accept those presented to them. Nor are they unduly influenced by the language of another.
If they find that a set of categories or distinctions is more appropriate than that used by another, they will use it. Recognizing that categories serve human purposes, they use those categories which best serve their purpose at the time. They are not limited by accepted ways of doing things.
They evaluate both goals and how to achieve them. They do not accept as true, or reject as false, beliefs they do not understand. They are not easily manipulated. Independent thinkers strive to incorporate all known relevant knowledge and insight into their thought and behavior.
They strive to determine for themselves when information is relevant, when to apply a concept, or when to make use of a skill. Egocentricity means confusing what we see and think with reality. When under the influence of egocentricity, we think that the way we see things is exactly the way things are.
The egocentric individual is more concerned with the appearance of truth, fairness, and fairmindedness, than with actually being correct, fair, or fairminded.
Egocentricity is the opposite of critical thought. It is common in adults as well as in children. As people are socialized, egocentricity partly evolves into sociocentricity. Egocentric tendencies extend to their groups.
The individual goes from "I am right! One can see this in both children and adults: My daddy is better than your daddy! My school religion, country, race, etc.
Uncritical thinkers often confuse loyalty with always supporting and agreeing, even when the other person or the group is wrong. If egocentricity and sociocentricity are the disease, self-awareness is the cure.
We need to become aware of our own tendency to confuse our view with "The Truth".Dartmouth Writing Program support materials - including development of argument.
Fundamentals of Critical Reading and Effective Writing. Mind Mirror Projects: A Tool for Integrating Critical Thinking into the English Language Classroom (), by Tully, in English Teaching Forum, State Department, Number 1 Critical Thinking Across the Curriculum Project, Metropolitan Community College.
Dartmouth Writing Program support materials - including development of argument. Fundamentals of Critical Reading and Effective Writing. Mind Mirror Projects: A Tool for Integrating Critical Thinking into the English Language Classroom (), by Tully, in English Teaching Forum, State Department, Number 1 Critical Thinking Across the .
Design and planning resource for classroom teachers, instructional designers, and professors of education. The glossary lists, describes, and provides links for over educational strategies. Page Menu; Main Library of Critical Thinking Resources; About Critical Thinking; Defining Critical Thinking; A Brief History of the Idea of Critical Thinking.
Jun 15, · The TESOL President’s Blog.
One of the most challenging tasks for language teachers when working with English language learners is to engage students in critical thinking and encourage them to ask questions that go beyond factual information.
The silent time before feedback is given, a period called wait-time, has also been an important topic of investigation. Thomas Good and Jere Brophy have reported on the research of Mary Budd Rowe and others concerning two wait times in the questioning cycle.