An essay has been defined in a variety of ways. One definition is a "prose composition with a focused subject of discussion" or a "long, systematic discourse". Aldous Huxleya leading essayist, gives guidance on the subject. Furthermore, Huxley argues that "essays belong to a literary species whose extreme variability can be studied most effectively within a three-poled frame of reference".
Patrick Weil, The Sovereign Citizen: Denaturalization and the Origins of the American Republic The case law centered on nationality sees citizenship as a precious right and takes no note of what may be onerous obligations for an overseas resident.
Subject to formal procedure, renunciation remains a right for those of full age and competence, albeit with tax consequences discussed extensively below.
See the Meyer Kahane cases, notably United States v. KahaneF. United States20 F. Democracy Stands on Its Head"4 Temp. In its attribution to persons born abroad or suspected of birth abroad, citizenship may be inchoate: In cases of doubt where the offspring of a citizen is unable or unwilling to prove facts blood or gestational relationship; prior parental U.
There is a rebuttable presumption of alienage as to persons born outside the geographic United States and territories: CivilettiF.
Army deserter, recorded birth in Mexico using fictitious name ; Corona-Palomera v. INSF. Developments in assisted reproductive technology have led to new interpretation of the Immigration and Nationality Act: The gestational option has been seen as discriminatory against LGBT men: The involuntary attribution of nationality later than at birth and other than as a matter of law when previously unknown facts such as place of birth, parentage or parental residence prior to birth come to light requires consent.
This is an international law principle: On the matter of automatic naturalization through marriage and its exorbitant attribution generally, see Alfred M.
The result is that citizenship cannot be "restored" retroactively without actual or implied consent, as by availing oneself of an attribute of that citizenship or by continued residence in the relevant territory.
Right of option and ethnic identity have been two elements of many treaties and statutes.
China and Israel existed for some years without any nationality law at all, yet in each case the State had no doubt as to who belonged to it. Note the IRS effort to argue otherwise in Rev.
Since the decisions operate both retroactively and prospectively, individuals affected thereby are and have been United States citizens since birth or naturalization in the absence of facts establishing that such individuals are not United States citizens by virtue of other provisions of law.
One could go further in terms of exorbitance: It has historically been impossible for the IRS to enforce this presumptive declaration of status against individuals who, having expatriated or had their U. There is a parallel here in the FATCA enterprise and its application to a universe of refuseniks and of expatriates who thought they never had, or had fully disposed of, American citizenship rights and obligations.
Here is the source of the uniquely American concept of "tax nationality": Model Tax Convention "former citizen or former long-term resident".Before and during the 19th Century the world's population was growing steadily but it remained in a stable state.
The 20th Century brought advancements in agriculture and technology, which caused dramatic increases in human population growth. These increases have continued through to the 21st /5(3).
Paul Kingsnorth is a writer and poet living in Cumbria, England. He is the author of several books, including the poetry collection Kidland and his fictional debut The Wake, winner of the Gordon Burn Prize and the Bookseller Book of the Year Award.
Kingsnorth is the cofounder and director of the Dark Mountain Project, a network of writers, artists, and thinkers.
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As a source for additional understanding of the subject;.