Ina handful of German Quakers in Germantown, Pennsylvaniapublished a petition condemning the trading and owning of black slaves. They characterized enslavement as unlawful kidnapping and defended the seized Africans' right to armed rebellion.
Eved has a much wider meaning than the English term slave, and in many circumstances it is more accurately translated into English as servant or hired worker.
Old Testament[ edit ] Historically, slavery was not just an Old Testament phenomenon. Slavery was practiced in every ancient Middle Eastern society: EgyptianBabylonianGreekRoman and Israelite. Slavery was an integral part of ancient commerce, taxation, and temple religion.
The lowest of slaves will he be to his brothers" Gn 9: David Curp notes that this episode has been used to justify racialized slavery, since "Christians and even some Muslims eventually identified Ham's descendants as black Africans". Later pseudo-scientific theories would be built around African skull shapes, dental structure, and body postures, in an attempt to find an unassailable argument—rooted in whatever the most persuasive contemporary idiom happened to be: Noah's curse only applied to Canaan, and according to biblical commentator, Gleason L.
Archer, this curse was fulfilled when Joshua conquered Canaan in BC. It is possible that the naming of 'Canaan' in the post-Flood story is itself a reflection of the situation of warfare between peoples in the time when the written form of the story took shape. Some forms of servitude, customary in ancient timeswere condoned by the Torah.
Hebrews would be punished if they beat a slave causing death within a day or two,  and would have to let a slave go free if they destroyed a slave's eye or tooth,  force a slave to work on the Sabbath,  return an escaped slave of another people who had taken refuge among the Israelites,  or to slander a slave.
Children could also be sold into debt bondage which was sometimes ordered by a court of law. Slaves were to be treated as part of an extended family;  they were allowed to celebrate the Sukkot festival,  and expected to honor Shabbat. This provision did not include females sold into concubinage by impoverished parents; instead their rights over against another wife were protected.
If a male slave had been given another slave in marriage, and they had a family, the wife and children remained the property of the master. However, if the slave was happy with his master, and wished to stay with a wife that his owner gave to him, he could renounce manumission, an act which would be signified, as in other Ancient Near Eastern nations,  by the slave gaining a ritual ear piercing.
Non-Israelite slaves could be enslaved indefinitely and were to be treated as inheritable property.
Slaves may have been encouraged by Paul the Apostle in the first Corinthian Epistle to seek or purchase their freedom whenever possible. Giles notes that these circumstances were used by pro-slavery apologists in the 19th century to suggest that Jesus approved of slavery.
Many of the early Christians were slaves. In several Pauline epistlesand the First Epistle of Peterslaves are admonished to obey their masters, as to the Lord, and not to men. The basic principle was "you have the same Master in heaven, and with him there is no partiality.
Paul entreats Philemon to regard Onesimus as a beloved brother in Christ. Seldom noted in the debate was the situation of Onesimus if he had not returned: Be that as it may, as T.The Debate over Slavery in the United States ADAPTED FROM ESSAYS BY LAURA MITCHELL, UNIVERSITY OFCALIFORNIA, AND JONATHAN HOLLOWAY, YALE UNIVERSITY Source for information on The Debate over Slavery in the United States: African-American Years: Chronologies of American History and Experience dictionary.
The Origins of Proslavery Christianity helps us better understand the tragic story of how some American churches and church leaders helped to justify chattel slavery prior to the Civil War. 7 Books on the White-Black Racial Divide You Should Read SHARE. Tags Racial Harmony • Racial Unity.
Introduction This book tells the story of Kentucky in the era of the American Civil War. It more moderate on the most contentious issue of the day. Antebellum Kentucky about the nature of Christianity and the role Christian doctrine should play in shaping society.
Although the introduction of Christianity to the ancient world promoted the “value of freedom to an unprecedented degree,” the religion continued to hold the institution of .
SLAVERY AND THE EVANGELICAL ENLIGHTENMENT Robert P.
Forbes Department of History University of Connecticut It is a truism that evangelical Christianity and enlightenment liberalism have constituted two of the . The Origins of Proslavery Christianity Irons, Charles F.
Published by The University of North Carolina Press Irons, F.. The Origins of Proslavery Christianity: White and Black Evangelicals in Colonial and Antebellum Virginia.