Article 17 — Leaves of Absence Section 1. Appropriate documentation may be required for leaves under Section 1 A B and C.
In addition, XFDF does not allow the spawning, or addition, of new pages based on the given data; as can be done when using an FDF file.
It can also be used to export form data to stand-alone files that can be imported back into the corresponding PDF interactive form. Logical structure and accessibility[ edit ] A "tagged" PDF see clause Technically speaking, tagged PDF is a stylized use of the format that builds on the logical structure framework introduced in PDF 1.
Tagged PDF defines a set of standard structure types and attributes that allow page content text, graphics, and images to be extracted and reused for other purposes. Layers, or as they are more formally known Optional Content Groups OCGsrefer to sections of content in a PDF document that can be selectively viewed or hidden by document authors or consumers.
This capability is useful in CAD drawings, layered artwork, maps, multi-language documents etc. Basically, it consists of an Optional Content Properties Dictionary added to the document root. This dictionary contains an array of Optional Content Groups OCGseach describing a set of information and each of which may be individually displayed or suppressed, plus a set of Optional Content Configuration Dictionaries, which give the status Displayed or Suppressed of the given OCGs.
Security and signatures[ edit ] A PDF file may be encrypted for security, or digitally academic writing examples pdf files for authentication. The user password encrypts the file, while the owner password does not, instead relying on client software to respect these restrictions. An owner password can easily be removed by software, including some free online services.
Even without removing the password, most freeware or open source PDF readers ignore the permission "protections" and allow the user to print or make copy of excerpts of the text as if the document were not limited by password protection.
Not only can they restrict document access but they also reliably enforce permissions in ways that the standard security handler does not. The signature is used to validate that the permissions have been granted by a bona fide granting authority.
For example, it can be used to allow a user: Adobe Reader verifies that the signature uses a certificate from an Adobe-authorized certificate authority.
Any PDF application can use this same mechanism for its own purposes. Metadata[ edit ] PDF files can contain two types of metadata. This is stored in the optional Info trailer of the file. A small set of fields is defined, and can be extended with additional text values if required.
This method is deprecated in PDF 2. This allows metadata to be attached to any stream in the document, such as information about embedded illustrations, as well as the whole document attaching to the document catalogusing an extensible schema.
Usage restrictions and monitoring[ edit ] PDFs may be encrypted so that a password is needed to view or edit the contents.
PDF files may also contain embedded DRM restrictions that provide further controls that limit copying, editing or printing. These restrictions depend on the reader software to obey them, so the security they provide is limited.
Default display settings[ edit ] PDF documents can contain display settings, including the page display layout and zoom level. Adobe Reader uses these settings to override the user's default settings when opening the document.
Intellectual property[ edit ] Anyone may create applications that can read and write PDF files without having to pay royalties to Adobe Systems ; Adobe holds patents to PDF, but licenses them for royalty-free use in developing software complying with its PDF specification.
Some software can automatically produce tagged PDFs, but this feature is not always enabled by default. Adding tags to older PDFs and those that are generated from scanned documents can present some challenges. One of the significant challenges with PDF accessibility is that PDF documents have three distinct views, which, depending on the document's creation, can be inconsistent with each other.
The three views are i the physical view, ii the tags view, and iii the content view. The physical view is displayed and printed what most people consider a PDF document.
The tags view is what screen readers and other assistive technologies use to deliver a high-quality navigation and reading experience to users with disabilities. The content view is based on the physical order of objects within the PDF's content stream and may be displayed by software that does not fully support the tags view, such as the Reflow feature in Adobe's Reader.
Viruses and exploits[ edit ] See also: It was activated with Adobe Acrobat, but not with Acrobat Reader. Other PDF readers are also susceptible. One aggravating factor is that a PDF reader can be configured to start automatically if a web page has an embedded PDF file, providing a vector for attack.
The conventions described here are for NON-TECHNICAL academic prose where numbers are not a significant focus. Scientific and technical writing will have their own conventions and students Examples The country had been at war for.
WRITING AN. ESSAY. tudent. C. L. earning. S. entre. Add examples where you can to support your ideas. TYLE. Academic writing should be formal. Normally you should avoid the personal pronoun 'I', but check this with your department.
Your writing should be clear, and you must use in-text. Academic Writing Guide Part 1 - Academic Writing: This section provides detailed information on the academic writing process.
their academic assignment with writing presentation. A separate, consumable writing conclusion for academic grade level provides approximately 35 essays example brainstorming, outlining, re-writing, evaluation, examples, and all the conclusions of the complete, well-structured example.
IELTS Academic Writing Task 2 is the second of two writing tasks on the IELTS. Even though Task 1 is by no means easy, most students find IELTS Writing Task 2 more challenging. The purpose of this guide is to help you master the IELTS Writing Task 2 skills you need in order to do well on this.
In this light, the academic writing challenges of CPUT students fall within the realms of the three writing categories proposed by Lea and Street (): study skills, academic socialisation and academic .